The paper studies juvenile delinquency at ages 15-20 of children who have experienced placement in outside home care. The paper also contributes to the literature by studying whether this type of care (foster homes or residential institutions) matters. In contrast to earlier work, we isolate the effect of care type on criminal behavior by identifying children with a simple care history - children who have experienced only one type of care throughout their upbringing, thereby not confounding the effects of different care types on child outcomes. We then exploit the municipalities’ tendency to use different types of placements to instrument the mode of care controlling for other relevant municipal characteristics. Our study will bring new evidence on differences in the juvenile delinquency rate, the number of verdicts given as well as the type of verdict and sentence and criminal recidivism between children in foster care and children placed in residential institutions.